Past Issue: Volume 5, No. 1, 1998
Fluoride Level In Dentifrices
To date, fluorides has remained to be the best means of controlling dental caries. Fluoride is given either systematically via fluoridated water or topically through other supplements including toothpastes. In recent years increasing prevalence of enamel defects or fluorosis is observed in both populations receiving or not receiving water fluoridation. It is suspected that excessive ingestion of a "standard" 1000 to 1500 ppm fluoride from toothpastes might be a contributing factor to the presence of such defects. In Malaysia, reports of enamel defects occurring amongst 12 to 16 year-old schoolchildren ranged between 67 to 88 percent. Where water fluoridation is available, the amount of fluorides received from the home is between 0.3 to 0.5 ppm F. However, almost all toothpastes sold locally contains fluoride, the content of which is unknown to the consumers. This study reports on the analysis of fluoride levels carried out on 20 toothpaste samples sold locally. Results showed that fluoride levels in all 20 samples ranged between 20 to 1970 ppm F. Only two of the 20 samples analyzed, however, indicated having a level anywhere near the "standard" level. In addition, only two type~ of children's toothpaste with a fluoride concentration of 20 and 450 ppm F were commonly available as compared to adult toothpastes in all the samples studied.
Keywords: fluorides, dentifrice
Dental Education Resources On The World
The existence of numerous World Wide Web (WWW) sites devoted to dental education is proof that dental educators have been utilizing the pedagogical potential of information technology. Despite the availability of an immense quantity of information on the Internet, performing a search is often a complex, uncoordinated and time-consuming procedure, thus the usefulness of a guide on a topic of interest. Forty WWW sites devoted to dental education have been located using search engines. They were evaluated and classified as follows: guides, electronic publications, databases, patient education and undergraduate education; and according to subjects such as oral biology, morphology, histology, microbiology oral pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, radiology, periodontology, dental materials, orthodontics and neuroscience. The extensiveness and quality of some of these sites make them useful resources and knowledge banks for the teacher and the student.
Keywords: Computer-assisted learning, dental education
Saliva In Research And Clinical Diagnosis
Saliva collection is non-invasive and less stressful when compared with blood collection. Extensive studies on saliva has been carried out and the use of saliva as a biological sample in clinical diagnosis and for monitoring hormones, drugs and pollutants and viruses has been recommended. The complexities associated with saliva such as proper collection device and strict standardisation of a number of factors which include time of collection, types of saliva and storage made it less favourable to blood.
Keywords: Saliva, collection apparatus, storage conditions,clinical diagnosis.
The Tooth-Coloured Inlay/Onlay Restorations - A Review
Much interest has been generated in tooth-co loured inlays/onlays especially with patient's concern for esthetic appearance and the dentist's appreciation for additional strength of the restored tooth, together with bonding. Many types of tooth-coloured inlay/onlay restorations are available but none have undergone extensive and long term research. The different types of inlay/onlay restorations together with steps in their preparation are presented in this paper.
Keywords: Tooth-coloured inlay/onlay restorations
Dental Care For Pregnant Patients: A Reappraisal
This paper revisits the prescription of drugs for pregnant patients and the dental and oral changes during pregnancy. The management of these patients is also outlined. Emphasis should be placed on prevention of dental problem during pregnancy.
Keywords: dental care, pregnancy
A Comparative Histopathological Study Of Epithelial Linings Of Odontogenic Cysts And Unicystic Ameloblastomas
The epithelial cystic linings and adjacent connective tissues of 61 cases of odontogenic cysts (radicular cysts[RC], dentigerous cysts[DC] and odontogenic keratocysts[OKC]) and unicystic ameloblastomas(UA) were described and compared histopathologically. The type of epithelium in relation to the presence of rete processes and the distribution of chronic inflammatory cells were analyzed statistically. Significant associations between the presence of rete processes in the non-keratinized epithelial linings and inflammation in the subjacent connective tissues of RC and DC were found in this study. There was also a statistically significant association between the presence of rete Processes and nonkeratinized epithelial linings in OKC. The results also showed that in inflamed OKC, the cystic lining epithelium exhibited hyperplasia indistinguishable from lining epithelium of RC and DC. This study further showed that ameloblastomatous-like epithelial cystic linings were present in inflammed odontogenic cysts. All except for one case of unicystic ameloblastomas in this study showed ameloblastomatous epithelial cystic linings. It is recommended that the lining epithelium of RC and DC be examined carefully in order to rule out OKC. Similarly, ameloblastomatous-like lining epithelium arising from chronic inflammation in RC and DC should be differentiated from true ameloblastomatous cystic lining. Such careful examinations are diagnostically important in view of the similarities of epithelial cystic linings of inflamed OKC with DC and RC aggressive behavior ofOKC and UA.
Keywords: odontogenic cyst, unicystic ameloblastoma, histopathological features
The Radiopacity Of Dental Prostheses (Fixed And Removable) On Plain Radiographs - An Experimental Study
The impaction of dental prostheses in either the airway or esophagus is an under-recognized problem which may result in severe morbidity or even mortality. The radio-opacity and the size of fixed and removable dental prostheses in an animal carcass was investigated. Prostheses were placed one at a time in the oro-laryngopharynx or in tho trachea and the esophagus. Lateral radiographs were taken for each prosthesis in site. The radio-opacity and size of the prostheses on the radiograph was graded. Most of the prostheses investigated were radio-opaque though the removable prostheses were more likely to be radiolucent and differ in size. In a symptomatic patient with a missing dental prosthesis, a negative chest or abdominal radiograph does not exclude impaction, inhalation or ingestion. Further evaluation with endoscopy or even computed tomography may be essential to reduce the possibility of severe morbidity or even mortality.
Keywords: Radiology, radiopacity, dentat prostheses, in vitro
The Aetiology And Management Of ChronicIdiopathic Facial Pain: A Review
Chronic idiopathic facial pain is the diagnosis given to a group of orofacial pain of psychogenic origin which includes atypical facial pain, facial-arthromyalgia, atypical odontalgia and oral dysaesthesia. Despite various biochemical findings, the condition remains poorly understood, but we have begun to understand the nature of these patients. This review discusses the possible aetiology of the disease through various biochemical and clinical findings. The contribution of behavioural and psychological factors to the clinical course of the disease are described. The type of adverse life events that predispose people to the disease and their potency are briefly mentioned. The current diagnostic approach for the disease is also mentioned. Treatment includes antidepressant medication, physiotherapy, bite-guards and analgesics. The problems encountered in the long-term management and outcome studies of these patients include drop-outs, non-compliance and denial.
Keywords: Chronic facial pain, facial arthromyalgia, aetiology,
Toothpastes Available In The Malaysian Market
This study was undertaken to investigate the number and types (fluoride or non-fluoride) of toothpaste products available in the Malaysian market based on the label. Thirty-five brands of toothpaste were identified, of which ten (29%) were specifically recommended for children. Two of the children's toothpaste recommended that children below seven years old use a pea size amount of toothpaste. One (3%) was recommended for both children and adult. The remaining 24 (69%) did not state if they were recommended for either children or adults. To improve the flavour of the toothpastes, a variety of flavours had been added especially in children's toothpaste. Almost half of the toothpastes were for prevention of tooth decay and gum disease. Other indications were for tooth sensitivity, tooth whitening and stain removal. Twentyseven (77%) of the toothpastes were imported, while eight (23%) were made in Malaysia. Twenty-six (74%) of the toothpaste contained fluoride and the most common type of fluoride used was sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP). The fluoride concentration was not labeled in more than half (63%) of the fluoridated toothpaste. Of those that were fluoridated, different units of measurement were used. As there is no uniformity in the labelling of these products, it is recommended that the responsible authorities should take more action in enforcing proper labelling of the fluoride concentration in the toothpaste using standardized units.
Keywords: fluoride toothpaste, children, labelling
Ameloblastic Carcinoma: A Case With Cervical
Odontogenic carcinomas of the jaws are subclassified into malignant ameloblastoma, ameloblastic carcinoma and primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from within the bone. These may arise from residual islands of epithelium derived from dental lamina or epithelial lining of dental cysts. Ameloblastic carcinoma is extremely rare. An aggressive case of ameloblastic carcinoma occumng in a 59-year-old Malay man is presented. Wide excision of the primary lesion with radical neck dissection was carried out. He developed lung metastasis 4 months post-operatively. Despite chemotherapy upon discovery of lung metastasis, he expired 7 months following the initial diagnosis.
Keywords: Ameloblastic carcinoma, aggressive lesion, neck nodes metastases, pulmonary metastasis, malignant ameloblastoma.
Aneurysmal Bone Cyst - A Case Report And
Aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare non-epithelialized pseudocyst of the jaws. Jaffe and Lichtenstein in 1942 were the first to recognize aneurysmal bone cyst as a distinct clinical and pathological entity while Bernier and Bhaskar in 1958 were the first to describe the presence of this lesion in the jaws. A case of aneursymal bone cyst in the maxilla is presented and the literature reviewed.
Keywords: Aneursymal bone cyst, maxilla
An Epidemiological Survey Of Denture-Related Lesions In A Geriatric Population In Malaysia
The prevalence of tooth loss amongst the elderly is generally very high. Hence mastication and subsequently nutrition is greatly affected leading to the impairment of their general health. Therefore denture construction is an important aspect in the rehabilitation of the oral and general health in most elderlies. However, poorly constructed dentures and lack of maintenance coupled with various other health and healthrelated problems of the elderly, for instance poor general health especially with immunocompromised states, multiple medication intake, xerostomia, reduced mobility, economic status, mental state and ignorance may all lead to discomfort and denture associated lesions in these elderly patients. No regional studies or data on denture-related lesions in the general population have been reported. Previous epidemiological studies of adults in Malaysia (1,2) and other local studies have not investigated lesions of the oral tissues associated with geriatric denture wearers although studies in developed countries, where prevalence of denture usage is high, have noted that denture-related lesions to be the most common group of oral mucosal lesions in the elderly (3-7). As has been reported in most developing countries, the proportion of elderly in Malaysia is also increasing. It has also been noted that the mean number of teeth present decreases as age increases; in those between 15 to 19 years, all 28 teeth are present, 35 to 44 years-old have 23 teeth whereas those above 65 years retain only 12 teeth. Edentulousness increases from 0% to 7.3% to 56.6% in these age groups respectively (2). It is anticipated that with the increasing population of the elderly in Malaysia and the improving economy, the proportion of denture wearers in the population will increase. In view of the lack of investigations in Malaysia focusing exclusively on this group of lesions, it is therefore the aim of this pilot investigation to highlight the prevalence of denture- related lesions in a representative population of the elderly living in the community, both in the urban and rural areas. It may also form a basis against which future studies can be compared.
Keywords: epidemiology, geriatric, denture-related lesions
Last update: 07-12-11